文章摘要
黄岛近海岸贝类养殖区细菌群落结构多样性及环境因子分析
Analysis of BacterialCommunity Structure Diversity and Environmental Factors in the Coastal Shellfish Culture Area of Huangdao
投稿时间:2020-10-20  修订日期:2021-03-15
DOI:
中文关键词: 贝类养殖  高通量测序  环境因子  群落结构
英文关键词: shellfish culture  high-throughput sequencing  environmental factors  community structure
基金项目:国家重点研发计划2017YFC1404504
作者单位邮编
马景雪 青岛大学环境科学与工程学院 266071
王宗兴 自然资源部第一海洋研究所 
张培玉 青岛大学环境科学与工程学院 
郑明刚 自然资源部第一海洋研究所 
高萍 自然资源部第一海洋研究所 
曲凌云 自然资源部第一海洋研究所 
郑风荣 自然资源部第一海洋研究所 266061
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中文摘要:
      为了研究近海贝类开放养殖水域、细菌种群分布规律以及微生物群落多样性对环境因子的响应及与水产动物发病的关系,本实验于2019年7—11月采集黄岛某开放养殖水域不同样点海水样本,分析不同水质因子(水温、盐度、pH、溶解氧、叶绿素a、氨氮、磷酸盐、硝酸盐和亚硝酸盐)的动态变化,并利用高通量测序的方法分析了不同月份水样本和栉孔扇贝组织样本微生物群落结构和多样性的差异,探讨了环境因子与微生物群落结构的相关性。结果显示,水样本细菌群落结构共检测到42个门,94个纲。由变形菌门、拟杆菌门、蓝细菌门、放线菌门、厚壁菌门等组成,其中变形菌门为优势菌门,主要包括γ-变形菌纲和α-变形菌纲。不同月份的细菌OTU水平多样性分析结果为11月>9月>7月>10月>8月;弧菌OTU水平多样性分析结果表明弧菌的多样性呈现先升高后降低的变化,趋势跟水温的变化一致,8月养殖区多样性高于对照区。RDA分析表明,叶绿素含量(μg/L)和亚硝酸盐(mg/L)的浓度对门水平的物种组成和群落结构具有显著的影响。磷酸盐含量(mg/L)和DO(mg/L)对弧菌属水平的群落结构具有显著影响。扇贝组织样本细菌群落结构共检测出45个门,软壁菌门为优势菌门,主要包括支原菌属,与磷酸盐含量(mg/L)具有显著正相关。弧菌优势菌分离鉴定结果显示,7—11月养殖环境中的优势菌为溶藻弧菌和哈维弧菌。研究表明,养殖活动通过改变水体中的叶绿素和亚硝酸盐的含量对水体中的微生物群落结构产生了一定的影响,同时磷酸盐和DO的变化对弧菌属水平的群落结构也产生了一定的影响。本研究结果可为贝类疾病的发生提供一定的理论支撑。
英文摘要:
      In order to study the open aquaculture waters of offshore shellfish, the distribution of bacterial populations, and the response of microbial community diversity to environmental factors, The relationship between the incidence of aquatic animals, We collected sea water samples from different positions in an open aquaculture water area in Huangdao from July to November 2019 to analyze different water quality factors (water temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, ammonia nitrogen, Phosphates, nitrates and nitrites), and using high-throughput sequencing methods to analyze the differences in the microbial community structure and diversity of water samples and Chlamys farreri tissue samples in different months, and discuss the correlation between environmental factors and microbial community structure. The results showed that 42 phyla and 94 classes were detected in the bacterial community structure of water samples. It is composed of Proteobacteria, Bacteroides, Cyanobacteria, Actinomycetes, Firmicutes, etc. Among them, Proteobacteria is the dominant phyla, mainly including γ-Proteobacteria and α-Proteobacteria. The results of the diversity analysis of bacterial OTU levels in different months were November>September>July>October>August; The diversity analysis of Vibrio OTU level showed that the diversity of Vibrio increased first and then decreased, and the trend was consistent with the change of water temperature. The diversity of the culture area in August was higher than that of the control area. RDA analysis showed that the chlorophyll content (μg/L) and nitrite (mg/L) concentration had a significant impact on the species composition and community structure at the phylum level. Phosphate content (mg/L) and DO (mg/L) have a significant impact on the community structure of Vibrio. A total of 45 phyla were detected in the bacterial community structure of tissue samples, and the Tenericutes is the dominant phyla, mainly including Mycoplasma, which has a significant positive correlation with the phosphate content (mg/L). The results of the isolation and identification of the dominant bacteria of Vibrio showed that the dominant Vibrio in the culture environment from July to November were Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio harveyi. Studies have shown that aquaculture activities have a certain impact on the microbial community structure in the water by changing the content of chlorophyll and nitrite in the water. At the same time, changes in phosphate and DO have a certain impact on the community structure of the Vibrio genus. The results of this study can provide certain theoretical support for the occurrence of shellfish diseases.
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