文章摘要
马鞍列岛东部海域小黄鱼(Larimichthys polyactis)分布特征和生境选择初探
Distribution characteristics and habitat selection of small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) in the eastern waters of Ma"an Islands
投稿时间:2020-09-28  修订日期:2021-01-21
DOI:
中文关键词: 小黄鱼  生境选择  分布规律  空间分析  马鞍列岛
英文关键词: Larimichthys  polyactis, habitat  selection, distribution  patterns, spatial  analysis, Ma’an  Archipelago
基金项目:
作者单位邮编
汪振华 上海海洋大学 201310
沈 慧 上海海洋大学 
林 军 上海海洋大学 201310
章守宇 上海海洋大学 
钟佳明 上海海洋大学 
陈奕帆 上海海洋大学 
刘章彬 上海海洋大学 
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中文摘要:
      鱼类在不同生活史阶段往往表现出不同的生境偏好,对这种规律的全面认知是进行资源保护利用以及海洋牧场目标种选择和增殖技术开发的前提。基于2016—2017年夏季(2016年8月)、秋季(2016年12月)、冬季(2017年3月)和春季(2017年5月)在马鞍列岛东部海域的底拖网调查数据,本文对19个站位采获的共计3496 inds小黄鱼(Larimichthys polyactis)样品进行了体长、年龄、性别、性成熟度及饵料组成等生物学特征参数的分析,结合资源密度、相对重要性指数以及GIS空间分析方法,对上述指标进行了统计和可视化;采用T检验和Mann-Whitney U检验确定各指标的时空差异显著性水平,计算了小黄鱼生物学指标与环境因子之间的Pearson系数。结果显示马鞍列岛小黄鱼群体存在较强的季节变化和空间分布规律:平均资源密度夏季显著高于其他季节(p<0.05),岛礁区域高于外围海域;其中夏季的小黄鱼幼鱼密度亦显著高于秋季和冬季(p<0.05),且岛礁区域的密度高于外围海域,而成鱼密度则低于外围海域。小黄鱼夏季平均体长小于其他季节,且岛礁区域显著小于外围海域(p<0.05);四个季度当龄小黄鱼占58.7%,其中夏季小黄鱼平均年龄最小。夏季小黄鱼雌雄性比大于1,秋、冬季小于1,岛礁区域的雌雄比高于外围海域;达到性成熟的小黄鱼占比冬季最高,为60.0%。胃含物分析显示小黄鱼主食中国毛虾(Acetes chinensis)、龙头鱼(Harpadon nehereus)、细巧仿对虾(Parapenaeopsis tenella)和六丝矛尾虾虎鱼(Chaeturichthys hexanema),且岛礁区域饵料生物种类数高于外围海域。研究揭示,马鞍列岛独特的生境格局(岛礁繁多且分布着规模化的人工生境)为不同生活史阶段的小黄鱼提供了良好的索饵、繁殖、栖息和避敌场所。文章通过探查近海岛礁生境对小黄鱼资源的影响,明确了小黄鱼的生境选择偏好,有利于当地海洋牧场的科学选址和目标种的增殖保护,从而在局域种群水平发挥小黄鱼资源的养护作用。
英文摘要:
      Fish prefers to different habitats in different life cycle stages.Systematic recognition of this law is the premise of effective resource protection and utilization,target species selcetion and proliferation technology development of marine ranches.Based on the bottom trawl survey in summer (August,2016),autumn(December,2016),winter (March,2017) and spring (May,2017) in the eastern waters of Ma’an islands,we got the data of a total of 3496 Larimichthys polyact individuals collected from 19 sites.The biological characteristics of these small yellow croaker were analyzed,including body length,age,sex,sexual maturity and the food composition.The above indexes were statistically analyzed and visualized by resource density,relative importance index and GIS spatial analysis .T and Mann-Whitney U test were used to determine the significance level of spatial and temporal difference of each index,and Pearson coefficient between the biological indexes and environmental factors were calculated. The results show that the population of small yellow croaker off Ma’an Archipelago had certain seasonal and spatial distribution patterns:The density of small yellow croaker in summer was significantly higher than that in other seasons (p<0.05),and the density of small yellow croaker in reef area was higher than that in the periphery area. The density of juvenile small yellow croaker in summer was significantly higher than that in autumn and winter (p<0.05);The density of juvenile small yellow croaker in reef area was higher than that in the periphery area,and the adult individuals were reversed.The body length of small yellow croaker in summer was shorter than that in other seasons,and the body length in reef area was significantly shorter than that in periphery area (p<0.05).58.7% individuals of small yellow croaker were 0 age individuals,and the small yellow croaker in summer was younger than that in other seasons.In summer,female small yellow croaker were more than males,in autumn and winter,female small yellow croaker were less than males.The ratio of female small yellow croaker in reef area was higher than that in periphery.The proportion of mature small yellow croaker was highest in winter (60.0%).The main food for small yellow croaker were Acetes chinensis ,Harpadon nehereus,Parapenaeopsis tenella and Chaeturichthys stigmatias.and the number of species of food for small yellow croaker in reef area was higher than that in periphery area.Above all,the specific habitat pattern created by islands and large scale artificial habitats provide suitable habitats for small yellow croaker for feeding,breeding and sheltering in different age and life stages.It’s useful for the location planning of marine ranching and the protection and proliferation of target species by exploring the effects of offshore reef habitats on fish resources conservation to certificate small yellow croaker’s habitat selection,and protect small yellow croaker at the local population level to a certain extent.
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