文章摘要
鲨类的脂质代谢及其生理生态作用
Lipid metabolism and its physiological and ecological effects of sharks
投稿时间:2020-09-09  修订日期:2020-12-29
DOI:
中文关键词: 鲨类  脂质代谢  摄食生态  脂肪酸
英文关键词: shark  lipid metabolism  trophic  fatty acids
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31872573); 上海市自然科学基金项目(17ZR1413000); 青岛海洋科学与技术海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室开放课题(2017-1A03); 农业农村部远洋与极地渔业创新重点实验室开放课题(2019-3).
作者单位邮编
李云凯 上海海洋大学海洋科学学院

大洋渔业资源可持续开发省部共建教育部重点实验室

国家远洋渔业工程技术研究中心

国家远洋渔业工程技术研究中心 
201306
徐敏 上海海洋大学海洋科学学院 
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中文摘要:
      鲨类生活史过程中的能量来源于脂质代谢。肝脏是鲨类储存脂质的最主要器官,其储存的甘油三酯和游离脂肪酸为主要能量来源。消化吸收食物中的脂质是鲨类脂质积累的外源性途径,而肝脏内合成脂质是脂质积累的内源性途径。鲨类体内脂质的储存和代谢途径较硬骨鱼类,具有特异性,鲨类血液中游离脂肪酸与脂蛋白结合运输;将脂质储存在肝脏内;肝外组织脂肪酸氧化有限,更依赖于酮体的代谢产能,这些特征均与硬骨鱼类的脂质代谢途径相异。繁殖过程中,鲨类通过脂质以卵黄的形式为后代提供生长发育所需的营养。此外,肝脏和肌肉内的脂肪酸组成可用于分析鲨鱼的摄食信息。掌握鲨类的脂质代谢途径,对揭示鲨类物种进化过程,了解其生活史,制定有效的物种资源保护策略,具有重要的指导意义。
英文摘要:
      As the keystone species, sharks play an important role in regulating the structure and function of the food web of marine ecosystems. Shark’s liver is the primary organ where the lipid storage and synthesis, fatty acid oxidation and ketone body formation occur. Digestion and absorption of lipids from diet is the exogenous pathway and lipid synthesis in liver is the endogenous pathway of lipid accumulation of sharks. The lipid metabolism pathways in shark are unique compared with those of the teleost fish. The free fatty acids in shark’s blood are transported by binding with lipoproteins, while those in teleost are carried by albumin and usually have adipose tissues. The oxidation of fatty acids in extrahepatic tissues is limited, which is more dependent on the metabolic capacity of the ketone body which plays a limited role and is only used as alternative sources in the teleost fish. Triacylglycerol and free fatty acid in shark’s liver are the main energy sources, and squalene can provide additional buoyancy. During reproduction, female sharks provide nutrients for their offsprings with yolk sac with and without . The fatty acid profiles in the liver and muscles can be used to investigate the trophic ecology on ecological roles, resource partitioning and nutritional physiology of the shark species. Understanding the lipid metabolism pathways of sharks is of great significance for revealing their evolutionary process, understanding their mysterious life history and making effective management strategies for shark conservation.
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