文章摘要
莱州湾4种大型甲壳类的生态位
The niches of four large crustacean species in Laizhou Bay
投稿时间:2020-08-19  修订日期:2020-09-21
DOI:
中文关键词: 中国明对虾  三疣梭子蟹  日本蟳  口虾蛄  空间生态位  营养生态位  莱州湾
英文关键词: Fenneropenaeus chinensis  Portunus trituberculatus  Charybdis japonica  Oratosquilla oratoria  Spatial niche  nutritional niche  Laizhou Bay
基金项目:山东省重点研发计划(2018GHY115014)、山东省主要增殖资源调查项目(SD-XGPJ-2012-02)、农业部东海与远洋渔业资源开发利用重点实验室开放基金课题(2013K10)
作者单位邮编
李 凡 山东省海洋资源与环境研究院 264006
丛旭日 山东省淡水渔业研究院 
张孝民 山东省海洋资源与环境研究院 
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中文摘要:
      根据2010-2019年夏季莱州湾底拖网调查数据,研究了4种大型甲壳类中国明对虾(Fenneropenaeus chinensis)、三疣梭子蟹(Portunus trituberculatus)、日本蟳(Charybdis japonica)和口虾蛄(Oratosquilla oratoria)的群落地位、种间联结、空间生态位特征,并应用碳氮稳定同位素数据分析了4种大型甲壳类的营养级、营养生态位与摄食来源。结果表明,口虾蛄、日本蟳是目前莱州湾夏季甲壳类最主要的优势种,放流种类中国明对虾、三疣梭子蟹通常为群落的重要种;4种大型甲壳类的种间联结性不强,显著正联结主要出现于中国明对虾与其他三者之间;日本蟳空间生态位宽度最高(2.45),口虾蛄(2.13)次之,中国明对虾(1.92)、三疣梭子蟹(1.93)较低;生态位重叠较高主要发生于中国明对虾与其他三种之间;4种大型甲壳类营养级相近(3.02-3.28),中国明对虾生态位总面积最大,三疣梭子蟹与日本蟳、口虾蛄生态位总面积相近,三疣梭子蟹和日本蟳的营养生态位重叠较高;摄食来源分析表明,中国明对虾摄食双壳类比例更高,其他3种摄食来源同质化程度较高。目前莱州湾三疣梭子蟹和中国明对虾的优势度低于口虾蛄、日本蟳,表明增殖放流虽然扩大了三疣梭子蟹和中国明对虾的种群规模,但尚未较大程度改变甲壳类群落结构。综合4种甲壳类的群落地位、种间联结性、空间生态位宽度与重叠、营养级与营养生态位以及摄食来源的研究结果,中国明对虾与其他3者竞争相对较小,而三疣梭子蟹与日本蟳、口虾蛄竞争较大。为最大程度发挥增殖效益,建议在确定放流地点、放流数量时,应着重考虑相近生态位物种对放流物种竞争和限制。
英文摘要:
      Community status, interspecific associations, and spatial niche characteristics of four large-bodied crustacean species (Fenneropenaeus chinensis, Portunus trituberculatus, Charybdis japonica and Oratosquilla oratoria) in Laizhou Bay are reported based on bottom-trawl survey data collected during summer. Using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, we analyze trophic levels, nutritional niches, and diets of these crustaceans. Of these four species, O. oratoria and C. japonica are dominant, and F. chinensis and P. trituberculatus are typically important species in the community. Associations between these four species are not strong, with a significant positive association occurring mainly between F. chinensis and the other three species. Niche width of C. japonica is greatest (2.45), followed by O. oratoria (2.13), F. chinensis (1.92), and P. trituberculatus (1.93). A high niche overlap is apparent between F. chinensis and the other three species, and trophic levels of each are similar, ranging 3.02–3.28. The total niche area of F. chinensis is the largest, while that of P. trituberculatus is similar to those of C. japonica and O. oratoria. Nutritional niche overlaps between P. trituberculatus and C. japonica are relatively high. Proportionally more bivalves are ingested by F. chinensis than any of the other species, for which diets are more homogeneous. Although populations of P. trituberculatus and F. chinensis have expanded through seeding, the crustacean community structure in Laizhou Bay has not changed greatly. Based on community status, inter-species connectivity, spatial niche width and overlap, trophic level and nutritional niche, and the diets of these four crustaceans, F. chinensis is least competitive with other taxa, and P. trituberculatus is more competitive with C. japonica and O. oratoria. To maximize benefits of crustacean seeding in this area, we suggest consideration be given to competition between species, and niche similarities, to determine both release sites and quantities.
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