文章摘要
障碍物对鲢幼鱼游泳动力学的影响研究
The effect of an obstacle on swimming kinematics in juvenile silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix
投稿时间:2020-08-09  修订日期:2020-12-31
DOI:
中文关键词: 鲢幼鱼  障碍物  顶流静止  顶流前进  游泳动力学
英文关键词: juvenile silver carp  obstacle  Holding station  Moving forward  Swimming kinematics
基金项目:国家自然科学基金优秀青年科学基金(51922065);国家自然科学基金(51679126);湖北省高等学校优秀中青年科技创新团队计划项目(T201703)
作者单位邮编
石小涛 三峡大学湖北省鱼类过坝技术国际科技合作基地 443002
姜泽文 三峡大学湖北省鱼类过坝技术国际科技合作基地 
涂志英 三峡大学湖北省鱼类过坝技术国际科技合作基地 
罗金梅 三峡大学湖北省鱼类过坝技术国际科技合作基地 
陶宇 三峡大学湖北省鱼类过坝技术国际科技合作基地 
雷青松 珠江水利委员会珠江水利科学研究院 
柯森繁 三峡大学湖北省鱼类过坝技术国际科技合作基地 
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中文摘要:
      鱼道内障碍物设置形成了复杂的水流环境,理解鱼在复杂水流环境中的运动行为对提升鱼道过鱼效果至关重要。本研究通过在水槽中放置障碍物,分析不同来流速度(1 BL/s,3 BL/s和5 BL/s)(BL/s即体长每秒)下鲢幼鱼顶流静止和顶流前进时的游泳动力学表现,提取的游泳动力学指标有:摆尾频率,摆尾幅度,对地游泳速度,游泳加速度和运动步长。在流速为3 BL/s下,与自由来流相比,鲢幼鱼在障碍物后方顶流静止时,摆尾频率降低,摆尾幅度增加;顶流前进时,摆尾频率、对地游泳速度、游泳加速度和运动步长降低,摆尾幅度增加。表明3 BL/s工况下,障碍物有助于节省鱼类运动能量的消耗。在有障碍物的水流中,顶流静止时的摆尾频率随流速的增加而增加;顶流前进时,摆尾频率、摆尾幅度和游泳加速度随流速增大而增大,而运动步长随流速增大而减小。位置偏好研究表明:当流速为3 BL/s时,鲢幼鱼明显集中在距离障碍物后方约5-30 cm处游动,停留时间占比达92.5%,可能采用了卡门步态的运动模式;当流速为1 BL/s和5 BL/s时,鲢幼鱼没有表现出非常明显的位置偏好;在自由来流中,鲢常贴壁游泳,亦没有明显的位置偏好,表明障碍物和流速的结合可为鱼类提供水流藏匿场,研究结果为鱼道设计提供重要参考依据。
英文摘要:
      Obstacles create a complex flow environment in fishway. Understanding swimming behavior in complex flow environment is critical to improving the effectiveness of fishways. In this study, the swimming kinematics of juvenile silver carp holding station and moving forward under obstacle conditions were analyzed in different flow velocities (1 BL/s,3 BL/s and 5 BL/s) (body length per second). Metrics used to quantify kinematics were tail-beat frequency, tail-beat amplitude, ground swimming speed, swim acceleration, and ground stride., Compared to free stream swimming at flow velocity of 3 BL/s, silver carp holding station behind the obstacle showed a significant decrease in tail-beat frequency and significant increase in tail-beat amplitude; silver carp moving forward behind the obstacle showed a significant decrease in tail-beat frequency, ground swimming speed, swim acceleration and ground stride, and significant increase in tail-beat amplitude. This result showed that the obstacle help fish to save energy at 3 BL/s. In the obstacle-placed currents, tail-beat frequency of the holding station behavior increased with flow velocity. Tail-beat frequency, tail-beat amplitude and swim acceleration of moving forward behavior increased with flow velocity, while ground stride decreased with flow velocity. At flow velocity of 3 BL/s, we found that silver carp positioned a preferential position from 5-30 cm downstream of an obstacle where fish might adopt Karmen gait, and residence time accounted for 92.5%. At flow velocity of 1 BL/s and 5 BL/s, silver carp did not have an evident preferential position in the flume. Silver carp often closed to the wall to swim, and there was no obvious position preference. Our results indicate that a certain combination of obstacles and flow velocity will create flow refuge for fish to exploit. The results provide important reference for fishway design.
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