文章摘要
锌对凡纳滨对虾生长、非特异性免疫指标、抗病力及肠道菌群结构的影响
Effects of dietary zinc on growth, serum non-specific immune indexes, disease resistance and intestinal flora structure for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei
投稿时间:2020-07-30  修订日期:2021-01-12
DOI:
中文关键词: 凡纳滨对虾    生长性能  非特异性免疫  抗病力  肠道菌群
英文关键词: Litopenaeus vannamei  zinc  growth  non-specific immunity  disease resistance  intestinal flora
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31802316);国家重点研发计划(2019YFD0900200);现代农业产业技术体系专项 (CARS-47);广东省科技厅社会发展领域科技计划项目(2013B021100017)
作者单位邮编
何树青 广东海洋大学水产学院 524088
李日美 广东海洋大学水产学院 
杨奇慧 广东海洋大学水产学院
广东省水产动物精准营养与高效饲料工程技术研究中心 
524088
谭北平 广东海洋大学水产学院
广东省水产动物精准营养与高效饲料工程技术研究中心 
董晓慧 广东海洋大学水产学院
广东省水产动物精准营养与高效饲料工程技术研究中心 
迟淑艳 广东海洋大学水产学院
广东省水产动物精准营养与高效饲料工程技术研究中心 
章 双 广东海洋大学水产学院
广东省水产动物精准营养与高效饲料工程技术研究中心 
刘泓宇 广东海洋大学水产学院
广东省水产动物精准营养与高效饲料工程技术研究中心 
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中文摘要:
      本实验旨在研究不同锌水平对凡纳滨对虾生长、非特异性免疫指标、抗病力以及肠道菌群结构的影响。以七水合硫酸锌(ZnSO4·7H2O)作为本实验的锌源,在对虾基础饲料中分别添加0(对照组)、20、40、60、80、100、150 mg/kg有效锌配制成7种等氮等脂饲料,分别投喂初始体质量为(0.45±0.01) g的健康凡纳滨对虾幼虾8w。结果显示:①随着饲料中锌水平的提高,对虾增重率(WGR)、特定生长率(SGR)、存活率(SR)和蛋白质效率(PER)呈先上升后下降的趋势,饲料系数(FCR)呈先下降后上升的趋势。其中60 mg/kg组WGR和SGR均显著高于对照组;80 mg/kg组FCR最低,PER和SR最高,均显著优于对照组。②80~150 mg/kg组鱼体粗脂肪含量显著高于对照组;40~80 mg/kg组鱼体粗灰分含量显著高于对照组饲料中添加锌显著影响全鱼粗脂肪和粗灰分。③40~150 mg/kg组对虾血清总蛋白(TP)、总胆固醇(TC)及甘油三酯(TG)含量均显著高于对照组。④饲料中添加锌提高了血清超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、酚氧化酶(PO)、碱性磷酸酶(AKP)和酸性磷酸酶(ACP)活性及总抗氧化能力(T-AOC),同时显著降低了血清中的丙二醛(MDA)含量均受到锌水平的显著影响,表明锌可改善凡纳滨对虾的非特异性免疫功能。⑤在人工急性感染哈维氏弧菌的实验中,随着锌水平的提高,对虾累计存活率先上升后下降,锌添加组存活率均显著高于对照组,且80 mg/kg组存活率最高,抗病力最强抗病力均显著高于对照组。⑥在对虾肠道物种多样性分析中,40 mg/kg和100 mg/kg组对虾肠道有效OTU数目显著高于对照组。随着锌水平的增加,Ace指数和Chao1指数均显著提高,而Shannon指数和Simpson指数无显著变化。研究表明,在本实验条件下,添加适宜水平的锌可促进凡纳滨对虾幼虾的生长、提高抗病力;当饲料中缺乏锌时,对虾的生长和抗病力较差;而过量的锌在一定程度上抑制了对虾的生长,但未出现不良病症。以增重率作为评价指标,饲料中添加94.46 mg/kg锌可显著改善凡纳滨对虾幼虾的生长;以抗病力作为评价依据,凡纳滨对虾幼虾饲料中锌的最适添加量为80 mg/kg。
英文摘要:
      The trial was conducted to study the effects of dietary zinc (Zn) on growth, non-specific immune indexes, disease resistance and intestinal flora structure of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Zinc sulfate heptahydrate (ZnSO4·7H2O) was used as the Zn source in this experiment. The healthy prawns [initial body weight (0.45±0.01) g] were fed diets (isonitrogenous and isolipid) containing available Zn levels (i.e., 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 150 mg/kg) for 8 weeks, respectively. The results showed that: 1) The weight gain rate (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) in the 60 mg/kg group were significantly higher than those in the control group, and the best feed conversion ratio (FCR), the protein efficiency ratio (PER), and the survival rate (SR) were found in 80 mg/kg group. 2) The crude lipid (CL) content in 80~150 mg/kg groups were significantly higher than that in control group, and the content of crude ash (CA) in 40~80 mg/kg groups were significantly higher than that in control group. 3) The contents of serum total protein (TP), total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) in Zn supplemented groups were significantly higher than those in control group. 4) Dietary Zn supplementary increased the activities of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), phenol oxidase (PO), alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and acid phosphatase (ACP) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and significantly decreased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum, indicating that Zn can improve the non-specific immunity of L. vannamei. 5) In the experiment of artificial acute infection with Vibrio harveyi, the cumulative survival rate of shrimp in Zn supplemented group were significantly higher than that in control group, and the highest survival rate and disease resistance were found in 80 mg/kg group. 6) In the analysis of intestinal flora, the number of effective OTUs in 40 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg groups were significantly higher than that in control group. With the increase of dietary Zn, the Ace index and Chao1 index increased significantly, while the Shannon index and Simpson index had no significant differences. The results showed that an optimal level of Zn could promote the growth and improve the disease resistance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. The growth and disease resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei were poor when Zn was deficient in diets, while excessive Zn inhibited the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei to a certain extent. Overall, based on the WGR, the growth performance of Litopenaeus vannamei were significantly improved by supplementing 94.46 mg/kg Zn to the diets. Based on the evaluation of disease resistance, the optimal dietary Zn supplementary of Litopenaeus vannamei was 80 mg/kg.
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