文章摘要
不同电学参数和流速下的拦鱼电栅对草鱼幼鱼的拦导效率
Guiding out-migrating juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella by pulsed direct current electricity with different electric parameters at different flow velocities
投稿时间:2020-07-30  修订日期:2020-12-06
DOI:
中文关键词: 拦鱼电栅  脉冲直流电  电学参数  流速  草鱼幼鱼
英文关键词: electrical barrier  pulsed direct current  electrical parameters  water velocity  juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella
基金项目:国家自然科学(51679126,51709152);湖北省高等学校优秀中青年科技创新团队计划鱼类过坝技术项目(T201703)
作者单位邮编
石迅雷 湖北省鱼类过坝技术国际科技合作基地 443002
胡成 西藏自治区水利电力规划勘测设计研究院 
达瓦 西藏自治区水利电力规划勘测设计研究院 
尼玛 西藏自治区水利电力规划勘测设计研究院 
王庆富 西藏自治区水利电力规划勘测设计研究院 
石小涛 湖北省鱼类过坝技术国际科技合作基地 
刘国勇 湖北省鱼类过坝技术国际科技合作基地 443002
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中文摘要:
      为了探究不同电学参数的拦鱼电栅在静水条件下对草鱼幼鱼[体长(10.22 ± 2.01)cm、体质量(34.25 ± 3.62)g]趋避行为的影响,本研究构建了一种双排式的拦鱼电栅,在静水条件下采用3因素4水平正交实验设计,测试了脉冲电压、脉冲频率、脉冲宽度等脉冲直流电参数对拦鱼效果的影响;为了探究静水下拦鱼效果最佳的拦鱼电栅电学参数在不同流速下的适应性,在鱼道模型中设置了3种流速条件(0.15、0.25和0.35 m/s)分别进行放鱼实验,测试了不同流速下拦鱼电栅对鱼道进口诱鱼效率的影响。结果显示,(1)在静水条件下,工况7阻拦率最高(88.67 ± 1.10)%、平均昏迷率较低,对拦鱼效果的影响由大到小的因素分别为脉冲电压、脉冲频率、脉冲宽度;(2) 通过方差分析和单因素多重比较,得到了在静水条件下对草鱼幼鱼的拦鱼效果最佳的拦鱼电栅电学参数:脉冲电压设置为160 v/m、脉冲频率为6 Hz、脉冲宽度为16 ms;(3) 采用静水条件下的最佳电学参数设置(脉冲电压为160 v/m、脉冲频率为6 Hz、脉冲宽度为16 ms),当河道流速为0.15 m/s时,拦鱼电栅的开启能够显著提高草鱼幼鱼的鱼道进口诱集率和鱼道进口停留时间比率;而当河道流速为0.25和0.35 m/s时,开启拦鱼电栅不能显著提高草鱼幼鱼在鱼道进口诱集率和鱼道进口停留时间比率。研究表明,静水条件下拦鱼效果最佳的脉冲直流电参数为脉冲电压160 v/m、脉冲频率6 Hz、脉冲宽度16 ms;在实验的3种河道流速下采用静水条件下拦鱼效果最佳的脉冲直流电参数时,鱼道进口效率最佳的河道流速为0.15 m/s。实验结果可为实际工程中拦鱼电栅的布置提供参考。
英文摘要:
      The necessity for fish to migrate safely is a key requirement for the existence of many fish populations. Anthropogenic constructions, such as dams and weirs, that block rivers make it difficult, if not impossible, for fish to reach their upriver spawning grounds. Also, these constructions are also very dangerous for fish moving down the river because dams are built associated with hydroelectric power station plant intakes where fish are injured or killed on the gratings, pump screens, and in turbine chambers. Mild fields of pulsed, direct current (DC) electricity have been used extensively in deterring invasive fish species as well as in reservoir?fishery, but directional fish guidance using electric deterrence arrays to guide fish toward desirable passage locations or away from dangerous areas has received little attention. The effectiveness of the electric barriers is quite variable and testing is often lacking for a variety of water velocity conditions. To explore the effects of different electric parameters of electrical barriers on the avoidance behavior of the juvenile grass carp C. idella with body length of (10.22±2.01) cm and body mass of (34.25±3.62) g, a double-row type of electrical barrier based on pulsed direct current electricity was established and orthogonal designed experiment of three factors, including pulse voltage, frequency and width, four levels was adopted to optimize the blocking performance of the electrical barrier under the static water condition. To explore the effects of water flow conditions on the blocking efficiency of electric barriers using the optimized electric parameters recommended for static water conditions, three flow conditions at a generalized model of fishway entrance were utilized to test the attractive efficiency of fishway entrance. The results showed that, under static water conditions, the working condition 7 had the highest blocking rate (88.67±1.10) % and lower average stupefaction rate and that the factors affecting blocking efficiency are pulse voltage, pulse frequency and pulse width respectively. Determined by analysis of variance and multiple comparison, the optimal electric parameters under static water conditions for blocking efficiency were the pulse voltage of 160 v/m, the pulse frequency of 6 Hz and the pulse width of 16 ms. Under the optimal electric parameters, the experimental fish had minimal injuries when subjected to electric barriers. By employing the optimum electric parameters recommended for static water conditions, the active electric barrier can dramatically boost the aggregation rate and average retention time ratio at the fishway entrance when the channel velocity was 0.15 m/s. When the channel velocity was 0.25 m/s and 0.35 m/s, the aggregation rate and average retention time ratio with the active electric barrier were not enhanced significantly than that in the inactive electric barrier. Therefore, the recommended electric conditions for optimal blocking effect is to set the pulse voltage of 160 v/m, the pulse frequency of 6 Hz and the pulse width of 16 ms under static conditons. The attractive effects of fishway entrance could be enhanced by the active electrical barriers with the best flowing water velocity being 0.15 m/s. These results will have important reference significance for the practical engineering of the electrical barrier arrangement. The pulsed direct current electric systems have the potential to improve fish passage at anthropogenic barriers. Additional research should investigate the effectiveness under variable electric field voltage and various water flow velocities for fish of various size and shape depending on the species and its ethology.
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