文章摘要
周卫国,丁德文,索安宁,何伟宏,田涛.珠江口海洋牧场渔业资源关键功能群的遴选方法[J].水产学报,2021,45(3):433~443
珠江口海洋牧场渔业资源关键功能群的遴选方法
Key functional groups selection in marine ranching fishery resources from the Pearl River Estuary
投稿时间:2019-12-24  修订日期:2020-07-01
DOI:10.11964/jfc.20191212111
中文关键词: 海洋牧场  渔业资源  经济物种  关键功能群  遴选方法
英文关键词: marine ranching  fishery resources  economic species  key functional groups  selection method
基金项目:南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室(广州)人才团队引进重大专项(GML2019ZD0402);中国科学院南海生态环境工程创新研究院自主部署项目(ISEE2019ZR03)
作者单位E-mail
周卫国 中国科学院南海海洋研究所中国科学院热带海洋生物资源与生态重点实验室广东 广州 510301
南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室(广州)广东 广州 511458 
 
丁德文 中国科学院南海海洋研究所中国科学院热带海洋生物资源与生态重点实验室广东 广州 510301
南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室(广州)广东 广州 511458 
 
索安宁 中国科学院南海海洋研究所中国科学院热带海洋生物资源与生态重点实验室广东 广州 510301
南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室(广州)广东 广州 511458 
san720@sina.com 
何伟宏 中国科学院南海海洋研究所中国科学院热带海洋生物资源与生态重点实验室广东 广州 510301
南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室(广州)广东 广州 511458 
 
田涛 大连海洋大学辽宁省海洋牧场工程技术研究中心辽宁 大连 116023  
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中文摘要:
      功能群是研究海洋牧场生态系统结构和能量流动的基础。实验以2016年和2017年对珠江口万山海域渔业资源调查数据为基础,结合珠江口海域渔业资源历史资料,通过渔业资源优势度、生物量和渔获率指标排序分析,首次提出海洋牧场渔业资源关键功能群概念及其顶级经济物种遴选原则,以食物链营养级为基础构造海洋牧场渔业资源关键功能群。结果显示,丽叶鲹、棘头梅童鱼、周氏新对虾、隆线强蟹、凤鲚、口虾蛄、太阳强蟹和锐齿蟳为渔业资源优势度、生物量、渔获率排序中处于前30位的共有经济物种;底栖动物食性和浮游动物食性类群构成了珠江口海域的优势类群,分别占34%和20%;依据遴选原则遴选出名贵鱼类、高产鱼类和虾蟹类组成的7种海洋牧场渔业资源顶级经济物种,构造了7种由顶级经济物种及其食物链各营养级生物组成的海洋牧场渔业资源关键功能群,包括银鲳功能群、云纹石斑鱼功能群、鲈功能群、黄姑鱼功能群、鲻功能群、斑节对虾功能群和锯缘青蟹功能群。研究结果为我国现代化海洋牧场渔业资源功能群构造提供思路与方法。
英文摘要:
      Functional groups are the foundation of the analysis of food web structure and energy flow in marine ranching ecosystems. Based on filed investigation in Wanshan Islands adjacent sea in 2016 and 2017, and historical data of fishery resources in the Pearl River Estuary, the predominance, biomass and catch rate of fishery resources were studied. The results showed that Caranx kalla, Collichthys lucidus, Metapenaeus joyneri, Eucrate crenata, Coilia mystus, Oratosquilla oratoria, Eucrate solaris and Charybdis acuta were the shared economical species from the top 30 economic species. In terms of feeding habit, seven groups were identified in Pearl River Estuary including zooplanktivores, zooplanktivores/benthivores, benthivores, benthivores/piscivores, piscivores, omnivores, and detritivores. And benthivores (34%) and zooplanktivores (20%) groups were dominant in the Pearl River Estuary. Furthermore, rare fishes, high-yield fishes and shrimp and crab were eventually selected as top economic species of key functional groups in marine ranching fishery resources including Pampus argenteus, E. moara, L. japonicas, N. albiflora, Mugil cephalus, Penaeus monodon, and Scylla serrate. The common features are:(i) native economic species; (ii) great body weight and high yield; (iii) delicious taste and high market value; (iv) capable of artificial reproduction and release; (v) different habitat water layers; (vi) mutualistic. According to tropic levels of these top economical species in food chain, we found that both Epinehelus moara and Nibea albiflora belong to the higher carnivorous species. Epinehelus moara are bottom fishes that mainly feed on small and medium-sized fish, crustaceans and cephalopods, while Nibea albiflora are middle and lower-layer fishes that mainly feed on small and medium-sized fishes (e.g., Decapterus maruadsi, Sardinella aurita) and shrimps (e.g., O. oratoria, Alpheus japonicas). In addition, Pampus argenteus, Lateolabrax japonicas and S. serrate belong to the intermediate carnivorous species. To be specific, Pampus argenteus are pelagic fish, mainly feeding on jellyfish, ripple worms, water fleas or other zooplankton. L. japonicas are bottom fishes that mainly feed on fishes (e.g., C.mystus, Setipinna taty) and crustaceans (e.g., Oratosquilla oratoria. Scylla serrate) are benthic crustacean and feed on mollusks and small crustaceans. Moreover, M. cephalus inhabits the middle and lower layers and belongs to lower carnivorous species, mainly feeding on debris or diatoms. And Penaeus monodon are bottom-layer omnivorous species that mainly feed on mollusks and zooplankton. In conclusion, we constructed seven key functional groups of marine ranching fishery resources composed of top economic species and organisms in their food chains, including P. argenteus functional groups, Epinehelus moara functional groups, L. japonicas functional groups, N. albiflora functional groups, M. cephalus functional groups, P. monodon functional groups and S. serrata functional groups. The above seven key functional groups can realize poly-dimension utilization of space-time resources in marine ranching, thus are of great importance for sustainable development of marine fisheries and healthy coastal ecosystems.
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